This medical report published in September 2017 discusses the therapeutic effects of hydrogen and water enriched with hydrogen gas. The paper pays particular attention to how H2 impacts human health and the methods for its intake. Data from patient studies showing the effects of H2 on the nervous and cardiovascular systems, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, oncological and other socially significant diseases are presented. In this article we will pay special attention to several paragraphs describing the therapeutic effects of hydrogen on the urinary tract. We have kept the original title of this part of the paper so that you can easily find the original text. At the end of the article we have put a link to the full official report.
Effects of hydrogen on urinary system diseases.
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major cause of acute kidney injury during various clinical conditions, such as renal transplantation, partial nephrectomy, and treatment of adrenal aortic aneurysms. The mechanisms responsible for renal injury remain largely unknown, but high oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, and apoptosis have been implicated as major causes. Recent findings suggest that hydrogen gas (H2) protects against renal injury (I/R), mainly due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic effects and selectively significant reduction of cytotoxic free radicals (ROS).
Medics associate I/R - induced acute kidney injury with reduced allograft survival in kidney transplant patients. Pre-storage of the allograft in a hydrogen-rich solution at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated a reduction in renal cold I/R injury caused by kidney transplantation and suppression of cytotoxic free radical generation, reducing renal tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis, resulting in superior long-term outcomes in renal allograft patients. Pre-preservation had no effect on interferon-γ, IL-6 and TNF expression. A 2010 study demonstrated that oral administration of water enriched with hydrogen gas (hydrogen water) significantly reduced local production of these inflammatory markers in the setting of renal allograft. We attribute the different results in these clinical studies to the different route of administration and duration of H2 intake. Prolonged oral administration of hydrogen water was found to appear to have better therapeutic effects than temporary organ pre-preservation in a hydrogen-rich gas solution. A recent clinical study showed that hydrogen-rich saline protects against acute kidney injury after liver transplantation, in part by reducing apoptosis, which is likely involved in modulating p53-mediated autophagy.
Various animal models have been established to investigate the therapeutic effects of H2 water on renal inflammation and injury. Japanese scientist Nakashima Kamimura reported in 2009 that both H2 inhalation and oral hydrogen water intake ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without impairing antitumor activity. More recent studies have indicated that H2 ameliorates renal damage induced by various factors, such as nephrotoxicity, glucose, oxidative stress, unilateral ureteral obstruction, spontaneous hypertension, glycerol, septic shock, acute pancreatitis, and burns.
There are currently few published studies on the effects of H2 on the bladder. No apparent efficacy of hydrogen water has been found in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, although taking H2 water effectively relieves bladder pain in some patients. Appropriately designed, large-scale clinical trials will be needed to further confirm these findings.
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